Maximum efficiency, reliability, and longevity of the various types of generators, exciters, voltage regulators, and protective systems are of great concern to many industries. These objectives can only be achieved by understanding the characteristics, selection criteria, common problems and repair techniques, preventive and predictive maintenance. This seminar is a MUST for anyone who is involved in the selection, applications, or maintenance of generators. It provides the latest in technology. The seminar covers how this equipment operates and provides guidelines and rules that must be followed for a successful operation. Their basic design, operating characteristics, specification, selection criteria, advanced fault detection techniques, critical components, refurbishment, as well as all maintenance issues are covered in detail.


To provide a comprehensive understanding of the various types of generators, exciters, voltage regulators, and protective systems. Participants will be able to specify select, commission.


Day I

Fundamentals of Electric Systems

  • Capacitors
  • Current and Resistance
  • The Magnetic Field
  • Ampère’s Law
  • Magnetic Field in a Solenoid
  • Faraday’s Law of Induction
  • Lenz’s Law
  • Inductance
  • Alternating Currents
  • Three-Phase System
  • Three-Phase Connections
  • Power in Three-Phase Systems

Introduction to Machinery Principles

  • Electric Machines and Transformers
  • Common Terms and Principles
  • The Magnetic Field
  • Production of a Magnetic Field
  • Magnetic Behavior of Ferromagnetic Materials
  • Energy Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core
  • Faraday’s Law –Induced Voltage From a Magnetic Field Changing with Time
  • Core Loss Values
  • Permanent Magnets
  • Production of Induced Force on a Wire
  • Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field

AC Machine Fundamentals

  • The Rotating Magnetic Field
  • Proof of The Rotating Magnetic Field Flux Concept
  • The Relationship between Electrical Frequency and The Speed of Magnetic Field Rotation
  • Reversing The Direction of the Magnetic Field Rotation
  • The Induced Voltage in AC Machines
  • The Induced Voltage in a Coil on a Two-Pole Stator
  • The Induced Voltage in a Three-Phase Set of Coils
  • The RMS Voltage in a Three-Phase Stator
  • The Induced Torque in a Three-Phase Machine
  • Winding Insulation in AC Machines
  • AC Machine Power Flow and Losses

Synchronous Machines

  • Physical Description 2.0 Pole Pitch: Electrical Degrees
  • Airgap and Magnetic Circuit of a Synchronous Machine
  • Synchronous Machine Windings
  • Field Excitatio
  • Rotating Rectifier Excitation
  • Series Excitation
  • No-Load and Short-Circuit Values
  • Torque Tests
  • Speed-Torque Characteristic
  • Pull-In Torque
  • Pull-Out Torque
  • Excitation of a Synchronous Machine
  • Machine Losses
  • Windage and Friction Loss
  • Core Losses
  • Stray-Load Loss
  • Armature Conductor Loss
  • Excitation Loss

Synchronous Generators

  • Synchronous Generator Construction
  • The Speed of Rotation of A Synchronous Generator
  • The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator
  • The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator
  • The Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator
  • Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators
  • The Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
  • The Effect of Load Change on a Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
  • Parallel Operation of AC Generators
  • The Conditions Required for Paralleling
  • The General Procedure for Paralleling Generators
  • Frequency-Power and Voltage-Reactive Power Characteristics of a Synchronous Generator
  • Operation of Generators in Parallel With Large Power Systems
  • Synchronous Generator Ratings
  • The Voltage, Speed, and Frequency Ratings
  • Apparent Power and Power-Factor Ratings
  • Synchronous Generator Capability Curves
  • Short-Time Operation and Service Factor

Day II

Generator Components, Auxiliaries and Excitation

  • Introduction
  • The Rotor
  • Rotor Winding
  • Rotor End Rings
  • Wedges and Dampers
  • Sliprings, Brushgear and Shaft Grounding
  • Fans
  • Rotor and Threading Alignment
  • Vibration
  • Bearings and Seals
  • Size and Weight
  • Turbine-Generator Components: The Stator
  • Stator Core
  • Core Frame
  • Stator Winding
  • End Winding Support
  • Electrical Connections and Terminals
  • Stator Winding Cooling Components
  • Hydrogen Cooling Components
  • Stator Casing
  • Cooling Systems
  • Hydrogen Cooling
  • Hydrogen Cooling Systems
  • Shaft Seals and Seal Oil Systems
  • Thrust Type Seal
  • Journal Type Seal
  • Seal Oil System
  • Stator Winding Water Cooling Systems
  • Other Cooling Systems
  • Excitation
  • AC Excitation Systems
  • Exciter Transient Performance
  • The Pilot Exciter
  • The Main Exciter
  • Exciter Performance Testing
  • Pilot Exciter Protection
  • Brushless Excitation Systems
  • The Rotating Armature Main Exciter
  • The Voltage Regulator
  • Background
  • System Description
  • The Regulator
  • Auto Follow-up Circuit
  • Manual Follow-up
  • AVR Protection
  • The Digital AVR
  • Excitation Control
  • Rotor Current Limiter
  • Overfluxing Limit
  • The Power System Stabilizer
  • Characteristics of Generator Exciter Power Systems (GEP)
  • Excitation System Analysis
  • Generator Operation
  • Running-up to Speed
  • Open Circuit Conditions and Synchronizing
  • The Application of a Load
  • Capability Chart
  • Neutral Grounding
  • Rotor Torque

Generator Performance Parameters, Excitation Systems, Voltage Regulators, and Protective Systems

  • Generator Performance Parameters
  • Industry Standard
  • Ratings
  • Power Factor
  • Voltage
  • Short-Circuit Ratio
  • Efficiency
  • Parametric Effects
  • Instrument Transformers.
  • Excitation Systems
  • Exciter Types
  • Voltage Regulators
  • Manual Control
  • Automatic Control
  • Auxiliary Control Functions
  • Excitation System Stabilizer or Transient Gain Reduction
  • Underexcitation Limiter
  • Overexcitation Limiter and Protection
  • Volts-Per-Hertz Limiter and Protection
  • Off-Line Excitation Limiter and Protection
  • VAR and Power Factor Controllers
  • Excitation Performance Parameters.
  • Generator Protection
  • Protective Relays
  • Differential Current Protection
  • Stator Overcurrent Protection
  • Negative Sequence Current Protection
  • Stator Ground Fault Protection
  • Field Ground Protection
  • Loss of Excitation Protection
  • Motoring protection.


Double-Feed Generators

  • Introduction
  • Basic System Configuration
  • Equivalent Circuit for the Brushless Double-fed Machine
  • Parameter Extraction
  • Generator Operation
  • Converter Rating
  • Machine Control
  • Conclusions

Generator Main Connections

  • Introduction
  • Isolated Phase Bus Bar Circulatory Currents
  • System Description

Performance and Operation of Generators

  • Generator Systems 1.1 Excitation
  • Hydrogen Cooling
  • Cooling of The Stator Conductors
  • Hydrogen Seals
  • Condition Monitoring
  • Temperature Monitoring –Thermocouples
  • Hydrogen Gas Analysis
  • Hydrogen Dew Point Monitoring and Control
  • Vibration Monitoring
  • Operational Limitations
  • Temperatures
  • Hydrogen leakage
  • Fault Conditions
  • Stator Ground (Earth) Faults
  • Stator Phase-to-Phase Faults
  • Stator Interturn Faults
  • Negative Phase Sequence Currents
  • Loss of Generator Excitation
  • Pole Slipping
  • Rotor Faults

Day IV

Generator Surveillance and Testing

  • Generator Operational Checks (Surveillance and Monitoring)
  • Major Overhaul (every 8-10 years)
  • Generator Diagnostic Testing
  • Introduction
  • Stator Insulation Tests
  • DC Tests For Stator and Rotor Windings Index
  • Insulation Resistance and Polarization Index
  • Test Setup and Performance
  • Interpretation
  • DC Hipot Test
  • High Voltage and Step Ramp Tests
  • AC Tests for Stator Windings
  • Dissipation Factor and Tip-Up Tests
  • Tip-Up Test
  • Stator Turn Insulation Surge Test
  • Synchronous Machine Rotor Windings
  • Open Circuit Test For Shorted Turns
  • Air Gap Search Coil For Detecting Turns
  • Impedance Test With Rotor Installed
  • Detecting the Location of Shorted Turns With Rotor Removed
  • Low Voltage AC Test
  • Low Voltage DC Test (Voltage-Drop Test)
  • Field Winding Ground Fault Detectors
  • Surge Testing For Rotor Shorted Turns and Ground Faults
  • Partial Discharge Tests
  • Off-Line Conventional pd Test
  • Test Setup and Performanc
  • Interpretation
  • On-Line Conventional pd Test
  • Low Core Flux Test (EL-CID)
  • Mechanical Tests
  • Introduction
  • Stator Windings Tightness Check
  • Stator Winding Side Clearance Check
  • Core Laminations Tightness Check (knife test)
  • Visual Techniques
  • Groundwall Insulation
  • Rotor Winding
  • Turn Insulation
  • Slow Wedges and Bracing
  • Stator and Rotor Cores

Generator Inspection and Maintenance

  • On-Load Maintenance and Monitoring
  • Stator
  • Rotor
  • Excitation System
  • Off-Load Maintenance
  • Stator Internal Work
  • Stator External Work
  • Rotor
  • Slip Rigs and Brush Gear
  • Exciter and Pilot Exciter
  • Rectifier
  • Field Switch
  • Automatic Voltage Regulator
  • Supervisory and Protection Equipment
  • Generator Testing
  • Insulation Testing
  • Testing the stator core
  • Stator Coolant Circuit Testing
  • Hydrogen Loss Test
  • Rotor Winding Tests

Generator Operational Problems, and Refurbishment Options

  • Typical Generator Operational Problems
  • Shorted Turns and Field Grounds
  • Thermal Sensitivity
  • Contamination
  • Collector, Bore Copper and Connection Problems
  • Copper Distortion
  • Forging Concerns
  • Retaining Rings
  • Misoperation
  • Generator Rotor Reliability and Life Expectancy
  • Generator Experience
  • Generator Rotor Refurbishment
  • Generator Rotor Rewind
  • Types of Insulation
  • Generator Rotor Modifications, Upgrades and Uprates
  • High Speed Balancing
  • Flux Probe Test

Bearings And Lubrication

  • Types of Bearings
  • Ball and Roller Bearings
  • Stresses During Rolling Contact
  • Statistical Nature of Bearing Life
  • Materials and Finish
  • Sizes of Bearings
  • Types of Roller Bearings
  • Thrust Bearings
  • Lubrication
    The Viscosity of Lubricants
    Viscosity Units
    Significance of Viscosity
    Flow Through Pipes
    Variation of Viscosity With Temperature and Pressure
    Temperature Effect
    Viscosity Index
    Effects of Pressure on Viscosity
    Non-Newtonian Fluids
    VI Improved Oils
    Oils at Low Temperatures
    Variation of Lubricant Viscosity With Use
    Oxidation Reactions
    Physical Reactions
    Housing and Lubrication
    Lubrication and Antifriction Bearings


Used Oil Analysis

  • Proper Lube Oil Sampling Technique
  • Test Description and Significance
    Visual and Sensory Inspection
    Chemical and Physical Tests
    Water Content
    Emission Spectrographic Analysis
    Infrared Analysis
    Total Base Number
    Total Acid Number
    Particle Count

Vibration Analysis

  • The Application of Sine Waves to Vibration
  • Multimass Systems
  • Resonance
  • Logarithms and Decibels (db)
  • The Use of Filtering
  • Vibration Instrumentation
  • Displacement Transducer (proximity probe)
  • Velocity Transducer
  • Acceleration Transducer
  • Transducer Selection
  • Time Domain
  • Frequency Domain
  • Machinery Example
  • Vibration Analysis
  • Vibration Causes
  • Forcing Frequency Causes
  • Unbalance
  • Misalignment
  • Mechanical Looseness
  • Bearing Defects
  • Gear Defects
  • Oil Whirl
  • Blade or Vane Problems
  • Electric Motor Defects
  • Uneven Loading
  • Drive-Shaft Torsion
  • Resonant Frequency
  • Vibration Severity

Power Station Electrical Systems and Design Requirements

  • Introduction
  • System Requirements
  • Grid Criteria
  • Safety Requirements
  • Electrical System Description
  • The Generator Main Output System
  • Electrical Auxiliary Systems
  • Type of Stations
  • System Performance
  • Unit Start-up
  • Plant Requirements
  • Synchronizing to the Grid
  • Synchronizing the Unit to the Station
  • Shutdown and Power Trip
  • Controlled Shutdown
  • Power Trip
  • The Effects of Loss of Grid Supplies
  • Power Plant Outages and Faults
  • Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Systems
  • Introduction
  • DC Systems
  • Introduction
  • DC System Functions
  • Mission Time of DC Systems

Power Station Protective Systems

  • Introduction
  • Design Criteria
  • Generator Protection
  • Stator Ground (Earth) Faults –Low Impedance Grounding
  • Stator Ground Faults –High Resistance Grounding
  • Stator Phase-to-Phase Faults
  • DC Tripping Systems
  • Logic Diagram

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Introduction to Machinery Principles
  • Interconnection With the Grid
  • AC Machine Fundamentals
  • Synchronous Generators
  • Generator Components, Auxiliaries, and Excitation


Engineers of any discipline, managers, technician, technologists, and other technical personnel.

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